Danube Delta is a new land still forming for more than 16.000 years. The water and the land in this area offer good life conditions for many species of animals and plants. Every year the surface of the delta grows by 40 square meters.
The Danube Delta is a real museum of biodiversity, a natural gene bank of a priceless value for the universal natural patrimony. The delta has various ecosystems where live many birds unique in Europe, fish and animals.
Since 1992 the Danube Delta entered in UNESCO world heritage being classified as a biosphere reservation at national level and as a national park. Since 21st of May 1992 the Danube Delta is protected by The Ramsar Convention on Wetlands because it is a wet area of international importance.
The delta’s flora is represented mainly by the specific vegetation of the wet areas. Here can be found reed and bulrush on 78% of the total surface. But there are also a lot of tree species and two sand forests, Letea and Caraorman. Letea forest is known for its wild horse stud which has been saved recently from being slaughtered. Also this forest is the only place in Europe where Greek lianas of almost 25 meters still grow giving to it the aspect of a tropical forest.
Here the fauna is represented by 360 bird species and 135 fish species from which only 45 are freshwater species. Since 2006 the sturgeon was declared prohibited specie for a period of 10 years. Some fish migrate to spawn eggs. Among these fish are the Danube herring and the blue herring which in spring enter in flocks on the rivers and up to the Danube’s springs. There are other species which normally live in the Black Sea and during the reproductive period climb up the Danube. Also at edge of the delta live a small specie of shark.
The Danube Delta represents the most important resting place for migratory birds traveling between tropical regions and the Arctic region. Five of the most important roads of these birds pass through Danube Delta. Besides migratory species here nest a large number of rare species which come here as guest of summer. Other species hatch in northern Europe and come here for the winter.
In the Danube Delta grow two carnivorous plants, Utricularia vulgaris and Aldrovanda which have developed traps to catch insects in order to feed themselves.
Due to the large extent of water the number of people is very low. They live mainly from fishing and in communion with nature. Here the traditions are similar to other areas in the country; people like to celebrate together although they live far away one from another.
If you arrive in the Danube Delta there are a lot of options to travel and to discover it. The easiest way to see the delta is to make a trip by speedboat on the beautiful canals. The trail passes through a series of small canals and lakes located near Tulcea. The most interesting point is the canal “With the boat in the forest”, a canal that has dug its way through a forest of willows which gives the tourist the impression that he is in a submerged forest.